AskDefine | Define conceit

Dictionary Definition

conceit

Noun

1 feelings of excessive pride [syn: amour propre, self-love, vanity]
2 the trait of being vain and conceited [syn: vanity]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Pronunciation

Noun

  1. An over-high esteem of oneself; vain pride..
  2. Something conceived, especially, a novel or fanciful idea.
  3. In literature and poetry, a device of analogy consisting of an extended metaphor.

Translations

over-high esteem of oneself
idea, literary device

References

Extensive Definition

Aside from its common usage, signifying "excessive pride", in literary terms, a conceit is an extended metaphor with a complex logic that governs an entire poem or poetic passage. By juxtaposing, usurping and manipulating images and ideas in surprising ways, a conceit invites the reader into a more sophisticated understanding of an object of comparison.

Metaphysical conceit

The term is generally associated with the 17th century metaphysical poets in contemporary usage. In the metaphysical conceit, metaphors have a much more purely conceptual, and thus tenuous, relationship between the things being compared. Helen Gardner observed that "a conceit is a comparison whose ingenuity is more striking than its justness" and that "a comparison becomes a conceit when we are made to concede likeness while being strongly conscious of unlikeness." An example of the latter would be George Herbert's "Praise (3)," in which the generosity of God is compared to a bottle which ("As we have boxes for the poor") will take in an infinite amount of the speaker's tears.
An often-cited example of the metaphysical conceit is the metaphor from John Donne's "The Flea," in which a flea that bites both the speaker and his lover becomes a conceit arguing that his lover has no reason to deny him sexually, although they are not married:
   Oh stay! three lives in one flea spareWhere we almost, yea more than married are.   This flea is you and I, and thisOur marriage-bed and marriage-temple is.
When Sir Philip Sidney begins a sonnet with the conventional idiomatic expression "My true-love hath my heart and I have his", but then takes the metaphor literally and teases out a number of literal possibilities and extravagantly playful conceptions in the exchange of hearts, the result is a fully-formed conceit.

The Petrarchan Conceit

The Petrarchan conceit, used in love poetry, exploits a particular set of images for comparisons with the despairing lover and his unpitying but idolized mistress. For instance, the lover is a ship on a stormy sea, and his mistress "a cloud of dark disdain"; or else the lady is a sun whose beauty and virtue shine on her lover from a distance.
The paradoxical pain and pleasure of lovesickness is often described using oxymoron, for instance uniting peace and war, burning and freezing, and so forth. But images which were novel in the sonnets of Petrarch became clichés in the poetry of later imitators. Romeo uses hackneyed Petrarchan conceits in describing his love for Rosaline as "bright smoke, cold fire, sick health"; and Shakespeare parodies such conceits in Sonnet 130: "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun."

History of the term

In the Renaissance, the term (which is related to the word concept) indicated any particularly fanciful expression of wit, and was later used pejoratively of outlandish poetic metaphors.
Recent literary critics have used the term to mean simply the style of extended and heightened metaphor common in the Renaissance and particularly in the 17th century, without any particular indication of value. Within this critical sense, the Princeton Encyclopedia makes a distinction between two kinds of conceits: the Metaphysical conceit, described above, and the Petrarchan conceit. In the latter, human experiences are described in terms of an outsized metaphor (a kind of metaphorical hyperbole), like the stock comparison of eyes to the sun, which Shakespeare makes light of in his sonnet 130: "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun."

Other uses

For later literature and film, the term is sometimes used to refer to a device that stretches reality to take advantage of what Samuel Taylor Coleridge called the "willing suspension of disbelief." This usage is seldom seen in formal literary criticism.
An example from popular culture is the way many cartoons feature animals that can speak to each other, and in many cases can understand human speech, but humans cannot understand the speech of animals. This conceit is seen, and sometimes exploited for plot purposes, in such films as Over The Hedge, the Balto series, and Brother Bear.

Notes

References

  • Lakoff, George and Mark Turner. More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Princeton, NJ: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
  • Preminger, Alex and T.V.F. Brogan. The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.
conceit in French: Métaphore filée
conceit in German: Concetto

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

abstract thought, act of thought, affectation, aggressive self-confidence, amour propre, aphorism, apothegm, apprehension, arrogance, assume, assumption, assurance, attitude, bee, believe, bluster, boast, boastfulness, boasting, bombast, bon mot, boutade, brag, braggadocio, braggartism, bragging, brainstorm, brainwork, bravado, bright idea, bright thought, brilliant idea, bumptiousness, capriccio, caprice, cerebration, chestiness, climate of opinion, cockiness, cogitation, common belief, community sentiment, complacence, complacency, conceitedness, conceive, concept, conception, conceptualization, conclusion, consensus gentium, consequence, consideration, coxcombry, crack, crank, craze, crazy idea, creative thought, crotchet, dandyism, egoism, egotism, epigram, estimate, estimation, ethos, excogitation, expect, eye, face, facetiae, fad, fancy, fanfaronade, fantastic notion, fantasticism, fantasy, feeling, flash of wit, flight of fancy, flight of wit, flimflam, fool notion, foppery, foppishness, freak, freakish inspiration, fumes of fancy, gasconade, gasconism, gather, general belief, gibe, happy thought, harebrained idea, haughtiness, headwork, heavy thinking, heroics, humor, idea, ideation, image, imageless thought, imagination, imaginativeness, imagine, imagining, imago, immodesty, impression, independence, intellection, intellectual exercise, intellectual object, intellectualization, jactation, jactitation, judgment, kink, lights, maggot, megrim, memory-trace, mental act, mental image, mental impression, mental labor, mental process, mentation, mind, mot, mystique, narcissism, nasty crack, noesis, notion, observation, obtrusiveness, opinion, pardonable pride, passing fancy, perception, perkiness, persiflage, personal judgment, pertness, play of wit, pleasantry, point of view, pomposity, popular belief, position, posture, presumption, prevailing belief, pride, pridefulness, proudness, public belief, public opinion, puppyism, purse-pride, quip, quips and cranks, quirk, ratiocination, reaction, reasoning, recept, reckon, reflection, repartee, representation, retort, riposte, rodomontade, sally, scintillation, self-admiration, self-assertiveness, self-complacency, self-conceit, self-confidence, self-consequence, self-esteem, self-importance, self-love, self-reliance, self-respect, self-sufficiency, sentiment, side, sight, smart crack, smart saying, smugness, snappy comeback, stance, stiff-necked pride, stiff-neckedness, straight thinking, stroke of wit, stuffiness, suppose, supposition, swagger, swelled head, swelled-headedness, theory, think, thinking, thinking aloud, thinking out, thought, toy, turn of thought, vagary, vainglory, vainness, vanity, vaunt, vauntery, vaunting, view, way of thinking, whim, whim-wham, whimsy, wisecrack, witticism
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